LEPTOSPIROSIS CANINA PDF

La leptospirosis canina es una enfermedad que clínicamente puede presentar curso sobreagudo, agudo o crónico. Es de difícil diagnóstico por la gran variedad . The prevalence of leptospirosis in dogs indicates that the disease is present .. Caballero A. Leptospirosis canina y su relación con el hombre. INFORME BREVE. Genotypes of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from dogs in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Genotipos de cepas de Leptospira spp. aisladas de.

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Keywords Leptospirosis; Leptospira; Interrogans; dog; prevalence; risk factors. Leptospigosis et al observed that the antibody response against a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorragiae may persist up to 12 months after vaccination depending on the application protocol used. Table 4 shows the results of some cross-sectional studies of Leptospira infection in felines worldwide.

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On the other hand, the non-pathogenic or saprophitic species are environmental strains Picardeau J Small Anim Pract 37, The optimum pH range for the survival of Leptospira is 6. These hosts can shed the bacterium in the urine for months intermittently or throughout their life, leading to the direct or indirect infection of other animals or humans Van de Maele et al Golstein noted that a 4-fold change in a convalescent titre compared with a baseline titre is consistent with an active infection.

Whenit comes to recommending a diagnostic test for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs, McBride et al noted that the selection of an assay relied more on the availability, cost and the feasibility of implementing the test for point-of-care diagnosis.

In arid areas or during drought conditions, infections in incidental hosts are more common around water sources Langston and Heuter In Chile, human leptospirosis has been reported as single cases or epidemic outbreaks, but their incidence is unknown because until a few years ago it was not considered as a reportable disease Dabanch Pathology of domestic animals. Medidas de frecuencia de enfermedad: It is difficult to correlate serological findings with chronic infections and leptospiuria, which were reported in the presence of relatively low antibody titres Rojas et al Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniosis among dogs in Ankara, Turkey.

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Shophet noted that in felines, serological techniques alone sometimes are not sufficient to confirm canian leptospiral infection because with some serovars, animals may acnina the organisms in their urine without having a detectable serological titre or they may respond to infection with low antibody titres that tends to decline rapidly. There are few studies about leptospirosis in cats and these show different seroprevalence rates and serotypes Jamshidi et al However, the disease does occur in this species and should be considered in feline clinical practice.

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For pathogenic strains, about 24 serogroups have been described Picardeau Further studies are needed to obtain more information about the different serovars infecting cats, their reservoirs in the environment and the role of this species in the transmission of infection Jamshidi et al Fonzar U, H Langoni.

In this sense, serological testing for canine leptospirosis is complicated because dogs may be actively infected and shedding organisms, and yet be seronegative and clinically normal Harkin et al a.

The severity of cania signs depends on the age and immune-competence of the animal, the serovar involved and the virulence of the bacteria.

Prevalence of Leptospira infection and frequently reported serovars in dogs in cross-sectional studies carried out in some countries. Brachman, Plenum Medical Book; In cats, there is very little information about leptospirosis, particularly of the specific disease characteristics, the clinical utility of diagnostic tests and treatment options. Detailed information on the spread and distribution of the infection is important for the instigation of control measures and to increase awareness among pet owners and veterinarians.

Pathogenic leptospires do not multiply outside the host, therefore, to produce an outbreak of leptospirosis is necessary the presence of carrier animals and favorable conditions for the survival of the bacteria in the environment Acha and Szyfres The genus Leptospira is serologically classified into serovars and it includes more than two hundred pathogenic serovars, based on the structural heterogeneity of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide Xue et al Human and canine leptospirosis: Leptospirosis in dogs; a review with emphasis on clinical aspects.

Venkataraman KS, Nedunchelliyan S. Despite this situation, it is noted that the prevalence may be underestimated with a high rate of misdiagnosis, because the disease is not often included in the differential diagnosis of kidney diseases or because the owners do not seek veterinary assistance McDonough PCR tends to replace serological methods because of its sensitivity and capacity to give an early diagnosis of leptospirosis Picardeau In dogs, about 10 different serovars have been serologically associated with clinical disease Gautam et al b and the most frequently described are Canicola, Icterohaemorragiae, Pomona, Bratislava and Grippotyphosa Sessions and Greene a.

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Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in southern China. For this reason, the test only adds preliminary evidence of leptospiral infection, but the diagnosis must be confirmed by other methods Langston and Heuter In addition, felines could well be exposed to leptospires excreted by wildlife or present in urine of cohabiting dogs Langston and Heuter and in rural areas cats may be exposed directly or indirectly to leptospires transmitted by peridomestic rodents or infected livestock Everard et al Frecuency and type of renal lesions in dogs naturally infected with Leptospira species.

Evolution and pathogenesis of Leptospira spp: Rapid diagnostic assays must be accurate, user-friendly, relatively inexpensive, easy to interpret and stable under extreme conditions. Clin Microbiol Infect 17, Disposable bedding should be placed in biohazard bags and properly handled.

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Leptospires are susceptible to UV radiation, desiccation and routine disinfectants Sykes et al cxnina Cornell Vet 48, Duration of cajina in dogs vaccinated against leptospirosis with a bivalent inactivated vaccine.

It is known that domestic dogs are important reservoirs of infection for humans because they can shed live bacteria in the urine for months with no clinical signs Batista et aland especially in urban areas dogs should be considered as an important risk factor for leptospirosis Rodriguez et al It is a low-yield procedure due to the difficulty in culturing the organism Harkin et al a. There is no evidence to suggest that cats are less capable of transmitting leptospirosis than dogs, but the characteristic squatting posture that cats assume when they urinate and the fact that they cover the urine, could limit the chances of prolonged survival of the organism Everard et al Emerg Infect Dis 12, Further cqnina are needed to determine the characteristics of the Leptospira infection in different canine and feline cania and also it is necessary to increase the awareness of leptospirosis in veterinarians and through them, pass it to pet owners and the general public.

Vet Rec Comp Inmun Microbiol Dis.