most Azerbaijanis in Iran referred to themselves as Turks. .. 12 Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi; Heyat, “Regression of Azeri Language.” 13 E.M. 3 M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi. Ikinci chap (Tebriz: Artun, ). 4 Rahim Rayees-Nia, Azerbaijan dar Seir-e Tarikh-e Iran, 2 vols. (Tabriz: Nima. compared with more than 20 million Azeris in Iran. The two from northwestern Iran to the Caspian Sea in the east M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi.

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The proclamation in of an independent Azerbaijan in north of the borders has forwarded a catalyst that sends the pendulum swinging back again. Turkleriniin orphanage was created to take care of needy children. Following the events in northern Azerbaijan, a liberation movement took place in southern Azerbaijan in The presence of the Red Army in northern Iran paralyzed the Pahlavi regime’s military machine, and thereby, greatly contributed to the celebration of new social, political, and cultural landscape.

While emphasizing the mutual respect, cooperation and brotherhood between the two oppressed nations, the treaty provided for military alliance, exchange of diplomatic missions, fair treatment of minorities and common diplomatic action towards the Pahlavi regime in Tehran see also Roosevelt, They were witnessing the eradication of their native culture, language, history and heritage on a daily basis.

Now the farmer’s share rose from about 20 per cent in the old system to more than 43 per cent see also Atabaki, P. The oppressed and marginalized peoples of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan were among various Iranian nationalities and groups that took notice of the opportunity provided by the war and sought to implement their legitimate social, cultural and national demands.

Through the Qashqayi rebellion, the British manifested their strength to Iranian ruling elite and, thereby, further emboldened Qavamus-Saltaneh in his determination to destroy the autonomous republics see also Lenczowski, P.

For the first time, Azeri-Turkic became the official language in Azerbaijan and was taught in university, schools, and adult education centers, replacing Farsi. They were regarded as subhuman until such time as they openly admitted their inferior Turkish origins and their assimilation into the supposedly superior Persian Aryan race.

Regarding the autonomy of Azerbaijan, and its secession from Iran, the ADP sent controversial messages every now and then. The anti-colonial framework is a theorization of issues emerging from colonial relations, an interrogation of the configuration of power, embedded in ideas, cultures and histories of knowledge production.


On May 28,the northern Azerbaijan declared its autonomy tairxi a democratic party led by Mohammed-Amin Resulzadeh.

The uran was composed of deputies, all democrats and Azeri nationalists from various backgrounds such as workers and laborers, who were determined on demanding autonomy for Azerbaijan see also Atabaki, P. The Bolshevik revolution in Russia breathed new life into the struggle of oppressed groups and nationalities.

Fawcett’s Iran and the Cold War: The 12th of the December, the day of occupation, was commemorated as a national holiday and was celebrated in all government offices, schools and streets. I also heard and learned about the struggle of our people for self-determination, for justice, equality, freedom and liberation. Costa Mesa, California, Mazda: Under the Democratic government, all the banks in Tabriz were nationalized, holding more than 3, tomans at the time see also Lenczowski, P.

Thus, throughout this paper, my approach is heavily informed and influenced by my geographical location, my nationality, and my personal experience—in short, by who I am and where I come from. The oil concession had been granted to the Soviets on the condition that it be ratified by the future Majlis. Facing no mentionable resistance, the Shah’s army invaded Azerbaijan and savagely massacred its people see also Hurklerinin ; JAMI After a short while, the newly formed republic was invaded by the Red Army and was turned into one of the Socialist Soviet Republics see also Altestadt, The Ottoman Empire was disintegrated into a number of states under the British and French rules, with Turkish Republic emerging as an independent entity.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan

The invading army stayed in Azerbaijan for five years, continuing the persecution of ADP supporters. However, he made no serious attempt to restrict the activities of pro-German and pro-Nazi elements.

In the course turlerinin less than one year, the Democratic Government was able to lay the foundation of a modern educational system in Azerbaijan.

After the invasion of Azerbaijan, the Shah’s army marched into the neighboring Republic eeski Kurdistan. As a major step in eliminating irann oppression, it started a land distribution program all over the Republic. And finally, in a British orchestrated coup detat took place in Iran and reached its culmination in bringing to power a military dictator, known at the time as Reza Khan the Cossack.

On December 3, Pishevari assured the Azerbaijnis that the national army of Azerbaijan was ready to defend the republic.

In the end, they decided to follow the Azerbaijani leaders and agreed on non-resistance. Moreover, the Bills asked for the distribution of irab state-owned lands, along with the water rights, rivers, springs and ganats, among the peasants who lived on those lands and who cultivated them. Without considering any ethical, ideological, or political consequences of their actions, the Russians decided to side with Iranian Pahlavi regime, pressing ADP to surrender!


In Septembera puppet Qashqayi chief in the south led his Qashqayi tribes to capture a number of towns and villages.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan | Arastirmax – Scientific Publication Index

Iran and the Cold War: The existing literature on the Republic has not been sensitive to race, class, gender and other biases emanating from social position and location of the researchers. Irrespective of the so-called amnesty, the Persian racist propaganda, along with a fascistic campaign against the thrklerinin movements, continued.

In his famous poem, Kamran Mehdi has captured the feelings of Azerbaijanis regarding the forced separation: After extorting the oil concession, now the Russians badly needed its ratification. Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini.

And yet, not irqn thousand people in Azerbaijan out of three million are communists. Around mid-October, Qavam formed a new cabinet and reached an agreement with Qashqayi chiefs in the south, promising them that he would use all in his power to protect Iran’s territorial integrity, and to return Azerbaijan and Kurdistan back to the mother-land.

The new regime brutally suppressed the legitimate demands of various nationalities for self-determination, placing even a greater emphasis on Persian racism as a determining factor in maintaining its power bases. In the Kurdish city of Sanandaj, a group of workers and peasants came together and formed a party called Social Dimukrat Social Democrat. While sending observers to the Azerbaijan parliament, the Kurds maintained their distinct identity and insisted on the independence of the Kurdish Republic.

Adabiyyat va Incasanat Literature and Fine Arts. On 16 Februarythe National Assembly of Azerbaijan passed two important Bills regarding the land reform. Pishevari resigned from the government and left for Tutklerinin. Identifying the national movement as “crisis”, Fawcett tries to view the movement ‘from an Iranian perspective’ p.

Considering the fact that about 75 per cent of the people in Azerbaijan were farmers at the time Kazemi, On August 25,Soviets from the north and the British from the south invaded Iran.